The Study of the Hebrew Bible
List of Topics1 to be covered in Religion 101/304
(Last revised: 08/28/05)

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Check this page and the linked pages periodically since they are being updated continually! The printed textbook materials covering the first division level of the topics is listed in green bold face under the topic heading.

1.0  The Book and Those Who Study It Click on icon for access to study topics and questions.
1.1 The Old Testament: What Is It?
1.1.1 Definition
1.1.2 The Vehicles that carry the Story Narrative Legal Materials Poetry Wisdom Literature
1.1.3 The Crucial Event
1.2 How It Began
1.2.1 First the Event
1.2.2 Then the Story--the First Interpretation
1.2.3 Then the Reinterpretation
1.2.4 And Then the History--the Continuing Interpretation
1.3 How It Developed
1.3.1 The Process
1.3.2 The Written Story The final Product: The Canon The Hebrew Canon The Septuagint
1.4 Work of Scholars
1.4.1 Textual Criticism
1.4.2 Literary and Historical Studies Mosaic Authorship of the Pentateuch
1.4.3 The Documentary Hypothesis
1.4.4 Modifications of Wellhausen's Views Form Criticism Oral Tradition
1.4.5 Redaction Criticism
1.4.6 Present Trends in Old Testament Studies The Bible as literature Canonical Criticism The sociohistorical Approach Developers of the Finished Product
1.5 Archaeology as a Tool for Understanding
1.5.1 Basic Matters The Purpose of Archaeology The Practice of Archaeology The Skills and Tools of Archaeology Dating What is Found
1.5.2 Important Discoveries The Rosetta Stone The Gilgamesh Epic The Beni Hasan Mural The Gezer High Place An Ivory Knife Handle from Megiddo The Dead Sea Scrolls
1.5.3 The Purpose and Value of Archaeology
1.5.4 Why Study the Old Testament?
2.0  The Geographical and Historical Setting for the Old Testament Prior to 1200 B.C.E. Click on icon for access to study topics and questions.
2.1 The Fertile Cresent
2.2 Mesopotamia
2.2.1 3000 to 2000 B.C.E. The Sumerians The Akkadians
2.2.2 2000 to 1500 B.C.E. The Amorites (Arameans) The Hurrians
2.2.3 1500 to 1000 B.C.E. Arameans and Habiru
2.3 Asia Minor
2.3.1 The Hittites
2.4 Egypt
2.4.1 3000 to 2000 B.C.E.
2.4.2 2000 to 1000 B.C.E.
2.5 Syria-Phoenicia
2.5.1 3000 to 2000 B.C.E.
2.5.2 2000 to 1000 B.C.E.
2.6 Palestine
2.6.1 Its Importance
2.6.2 Geographical Features
2.6.3 Major Roads
3.0  Israel Looks at the Beginnings Click on icon for access to study topics and questions.
3.1 The Beginnings
3.1.1 The Primeval History
3.1.2 Enuma Elish
3.1.3 The Israelite Understanding of Creation
3.1.4 Genesis 1:1-2:4a
3.1.5 Genesis 2:4b-2:25
3.1.6 The Fall (Gen. 3:1-24)
3.1.7 Cain and Abel (Gen. 4:1-26)
3.1.8 Adam's Descendants
3.1.9 Flood Stories and the Flood (Gen. 5:32-9:19) The Gilgamesh Epic The Atrahasis Epic The Flood (Gen. 5:32-8:22) The Covenant (Gen. 9:1-17)
3.1.10 The Tower of Babel (Gen. 11:1-9)
3.1.11 The Summary (Gen. 1-11)
3.2 The Patriarchs
3.2.1 Introduction The Time Their Lifestyle
3.2.2 Abraham, the First of the "First" Fathers From Ur to Egypt (Gen. 12) Conflict and Covenant (Gen. 13-16) The covenant and Circumcision (Gen. 17) The Promise of New Life and the Forebodings of Doom (Gen. 18-19) Isaac and Ishmael (Gen. 21) The Test (Gen. 22) Sarah's Death and Burial (Gen. 23) A Wife for Isaac (Gen. 24:1-25:18)
3.2.3 Isaac, the Hyphen between Abraham and Jacob
3.2.4 Jacob, the Supplanter Jacob and Esau (Gen. 25:19-34; 27:1-45) Buying the Birthright (Gen. 25:29-34) Stealing the Blessing (Gen. 27:1-45) Jacob on the Run (Gen. 27:46-28:22) Jacob and Laban: An Amateur versus a professional (Gen. 29:1-30) Jacob and Laban: The Tables are Turned (Gen 30:1-31:55) Jacob and Esau: A Man Faces His Past (Gen. 32:1-33:20) Trouble at Shechem (Gen. 34) Back to Bethel and Two Genealogies (Gen. 35-36)
3.2.5 Joseph: From Patriarch's Son to Prime Minister A Fancy Coat and Angry Brothers (Gen. 37:1-36) Judah and Tamar (Gen. 38) Joseph Loses Another Cloak and Lands in Jail (Gen. 39:1-20) Joseph, the Prisoner and Interpreter of Dreams (Gen. 39:21-41:36) Joseph and His Brothers Again (Gen. 42-45) The Family in Egypt (Gen. 46-50)
3.2.6 Summary on the Patriarchs
4.0  Israel Becomes a People: Exodus and Wilderness Click on icon for access to study topics and questions.
4.1 The Book of Israel's Beginnings
4.2 The Importance of the Exodus Story
4.3 The Nature of the Exodus and the Exodus Materials
4.4 Moses: Birth and Wilderness Years
4.4.1 Changed Times and Changed Circumstances (Exod 1)
4.4.2 Dating the Exodus
4.4.3 Moses' Birth and Early Manhood (Exod. 2)
4.4.4 The Call of Moses (Exod. 3:1-4:17)
4.4.5 Moses' Excuses
4.4.6 On the Road to Egypt (Exod 4:18-31
4.5 Moses: The Struggle with Pharaoh
4.5.1 The Struggle Begins: Moses and Aaron before the Pharaoh (Exod. 5:1-6:1)
4.5.2 Moses' Call, the Covenant and a Genealogy (Exod. 6:2-7:7)
4.5.3 The Going Gets Rough: The Plagues (Exod. 7:8-11:10) The Plagues as Miracles The Plagues: God at Work Through Nature Pharaoh's Compromise Offer and the Eighth and Ninth Plagues (Exod. 10:1-11:10) The Final Plague: The Death of the Firstborn (Exod. 11:1-10, 12:29-32) The Meaning of the Plagues
4.6 The Exodus
4.6.1 Preparation for the Passover (Exod. 12:1-28)
4.6.2 Forward! March! (Exod. 12:29-42)
4.6.3 How Many Went?
4.6.4 Which Way Did They Go?
4.6.5 Sing Praises to the Lord (Exod. 15:1-21)
4.7 Troubles in the Wilderness
4.7.1 Which Way to Sinai?
4.7.2 Trouble on the Way (Exod. 15:22-17:7)
4.7.3 The Amalekite Raid (Exod 17:8-16)
4.7.4 A Father-in-Law's Advice (Exod. 18:1-27)
4.8 Sinai and the Giving of the Law
4.8.1 Israel's Constitional Convention (Exod 19-24)
4.8.2 The Ten Words (Exod 20:1-17)
4.8.3 Absolute Law and Case Law
4.8.4 The Ten Commandments and Covenant Ceremonies The Covenant in Israelite Life
4.9 The Principles Made Practical: The Law Code
4.9.1 The Covenant Code (Exod. 20:22-23:33)
4.9.2 The Priestly Code Sacrifice and Sacrifices Holidays and Holy Days (Lev. 23:1-44) The Holiness Code (Lev. 17-26)
4.9.3 The Deuteronomic Code
4.10 The Ten Commandments and the Codes
4.11 After the Convention Was Over
4.11.1 The Covenant Broken (Exod. 32)
4.11.2 On the Road to Kadesh-Barnea (Num. 10:11-12:16)
4.11.3 Spying Out the Land (Num. 13:1-33)
4.11.4 The Invasion Nobody Believed Would Succeed -- and It Didn't (Num. 14:1-45)
4.11.5 The Kadesh Years and More Priestly Laws (Num. 15:1-19:22)
4.12 On the March Again
4.12.1 Bound for the Promised Land (Num. 20:1-21:9)
4.12.2 The Moabites and Balaam (Num. 21:10-24:25)
4.12.3 Trouble at Peor (Num. 25:1-17)
4.12.4 Miscellaneous Materials (Num. 26-36)
4.12.5 Deuteronomy's Contribution to the Wilderness Story
4.12.6 Deuteronomy's Place in the Canon
4.12.7 The Old Passes -- The New Comes (Deut. 29:1-34:12)
4.12.8 Themes in the Pentateuch
5.0 Israel Gains a Home: Joshua and Judges Click on icon for access to study topics and questions.
5.1 Two Views of the Conquest
5.2 The International Scene
5.3 The Invasion of Canaan
5.3.1 Preparations for the Invasion (Josh. 1:1-2:24)
5.3.2 The Waters Part Again (Josh. 3:1-5:1)
5.3.3 And the Walls Came Tumbling Down (Josh. 5:2-6:27)
5.3.4 Trouble in the Camp (Josh. 7:1-26)
5.3.5 Those Tricky Gibeonites (Josh. 9:1-27)
5.3.6 The Five Kings of the South (Josh. 10:1-27)
5.3.7 Joshua's Conquests (Josh. 10:28-12:24)
5.4 Dividing the Land and Renewing a Covenant
5.4.1 The Dividing of the Land (Josh. 13:1-21:45)
5.4.2 The Altar That Was Not an Altar (Josh. 22:1-34)
5.4.3 Joshua's Farewell and a Covenant-Renewal Ceremony (Josh. 23:1-24:28; see also Josh. 8:30-35 and Deut. 27:1-26) The Influence of Canaanite Religion
5.4.4 Summary on Joshua's Version of the Conquest
5.5 Another Look at the Conquest
5.5.1 On with the Conquest (Judg. 1:1-2:5)
5.5.2 A Preview of the Book (Judg. 2:6-3:6)
5.6 The Period of the Judges
5.6.1 Othniel (Judg. 3:7-11)
5.6.2 Ehud, the Left-Handed Benjaminite (Judg. 3:12-30)
5.6.3 Shamgar: The Man with the Goad (Judg. 3:31)
5.6.4 Deborah and Barak: Women's Liberation in the Twelfth Century B.C.E. (Judg. 4:1-5:31)
5.6.5 Gideon: The Master of Surprise Attack (Judg. 6:1-8:35)
5.6.6 Abimelech: A Nobody Who Thought He Was Somebody (Judg. 9:1-25)
5.6.7 Jephthah: A Man Who Made a Foolish Vow and Kept It (Judg. 10:6-12:7)
5.6.8 Samson: a Brilliant Failure (Judg. 13:1-16:31)
5.7 There Was No King in Israel: Three Stories
5.7.1 Micah and the Levite (Judg. 17:1-13)
5.7.2 The Move of the Tribe of Dan (Judg. 18:1-31)
5.7.3 The Levite and the Sin of Benjamin (Judg. 19:1-21:25)
5.8 Summary of the Book of Judges
5.9 Recent Views of the Conquest
5.9.1 An Invasion
5.9.2 A Peaceful Infiltration
5.9.3 A Peasant's Revolt
5.9.4 Canaanites Turned Israelites
6.0  Israel Gains a King: Samuel and Saul Click on icon for access to study topics and questions.
6.1 Samuel: The Judge Who Appointed Kings
6.2 The Sources for the History of the Israelite Kingdom
6.2.1 Samuel: His Birth and Dedication (1 Sam. 1:1-2:10)
6.2.2 Samuel: His Training and Call to Service (1 Sam. 2:11-4:1)
6.3 The Beginning of the Philistine Wars
6.3.1 The Battle for Ebenezer (1 Sam. 4:1-22)
6.3.2 That Troublesome Ark (1 Sam. 5:1-6:21)
6.4 The Roles Samuel Played
6.4.1 Samuel, the Judge (1 Sam. 7:3-17)
6.4.2 Samuel, the Prophet (1 Sam. 8:1-9:14)
6.4.3 Samuel, the King-Maker (1 Sam. 9:15-10:27)
6.4.4 The Meaning of Annointing
6.5 Saul: The Last Judge and the First King (1020-1000 B.C.E.)
6.5.1 Saul Becomes a Hero (1 Sam. 11:1-15)
6.5.2 Samuel Accounts for His Ministry (1 Sam. 12:1-25)
6.5.3 The Nature of Saul's Kingship
6.5.4 The Length of Saul's Reign (1 Sam. 13:1)
6.5.5 Saul's Early Successes Against the Philistines (1 Sam. 13:2-4)
6.5.6 Saul's Mistake at Gilgal (1 Sam. 13:5-15a)
6.5.7 Jonathan's Heroics at Michmash (1 Sam. 13:15b-14:15)
6.5.8 Saul Blunders Again (1 Sam. 14:16-46)
6.5.9 Saul Disobeys Samuel Again (1 Sam. 15:1-35)
6.6 Saul and David
6.6.1 The Anointing of David (1 Sam. 16:1-13)
6.6.2 Saul and David Meet (1 Sam. 16:14-23)
6.6.3 David and Goliath (1 Sam. 17:1-58)
6.6.4 David in the Family of Saul (1 Sam. 18:1-30)
6.6.5 David Flees from Saul's Murderous Intentions (1 Sam. 19:1-21:15)
6.7 David, the Outlaw
6.7.1 Preparations for the Struggle with Saul (1 Sam. 22:1-5)
6.7.2 The Massacre at Nob (1 Sam. 22:6-23)
6.7.3 Running from Saul (1 Sam. 23:1-24:22)
6.7.4 David, the Outlaw (1 Sam. 25:1-28:2) Gaining Two Wives and Losing One (1 Sam. 25:1-44)
6.7.5 Another Version of Saul's Escape from David (1 Sam. 26:1-25) David Joins the Philistines (1 Sam. 27:1-28:2)
6.8 The End of Saul's Reign
6.8.1 Saul and the Witch of Endor (1 Sam. 28:3-25)
6.8.2 Where Was David? (1 Sam. 29:1-11)
6.8.3 A Raid on David's Camp (1 Sam. 30:1-31)
6.8.4 The Death of Saul (1 Sam. 31:1-14)
6.9 Samuel and Saul: A Summary
7.0  Israel's Time of Glory: David and Solomon Click on icon for access to study topics and questions.
7.1 David: King over Judah (1000-993 B.C.E.)
7.1.1 David's Reaction to Saul's Death (2 Sam. 1:1-27)
7.1.2 David as King of Judah (2 Sam. 2:1-11) Civil War (2 Sam. 2:12-32) Abner Asks for Peace (2 Sam. 3:1-22) Joab Murders Abner (2 Sam. 3:22-39) The Murder of Ishbosheth (2 Sam. 4:1-12)
7.2 David: King over All Israel (993-961 B.C.E.)
7.2.1 David Makes Jerusalem His Capital (2 Sam. 5:1-10)
7.2.2 The Task Ahead (2 Sam. 5:11-25)
7.2.3 Bringing the Ark of the Covenant to Jerusalem (2 Sam. 6:1-23)
7.2.4 No Temple Building by David (2 Sam. 7:1-29)
7.2.5 David's Military Successes (2 Sam. 8:1-18)
7.3 The Court History of David
7.3.1 David's Kindness to Jonathan's Son (2 Sam. 9:1-13)
7.3.2 The War Against the Ammonites (2 Sam. 10:1-19)
7.3.3 The King's Roving Eyes: David and Bathsheba (2 Sam. 11:1-12:25)
7.3.4 Trouble in the King's House (2 Sam. 13:1-39)
7.3.5 The Widow's Tale (2 Sam. 14:1-24)
7.3.6 Absalom, the Troublemaker (2 Sam. 14:25-15:6)
7.3.7 Absalom's Rebellion (2 Sam. 15:7-17:23)
7.3.8 Crushing the Rebellion (2 Sam. 17:24-19:8)
7.3.9 Putting Things Together Again (2 Sam. 19:8c-43)
7.3.10 Sheba's Rebellion (2 Sam. 20:1-26)
7.3.11 Odds and Ends (2 Sam. 21:1-24:25)
7.3.12 The Old Order Passes (1 Kings 1:1-2:12)
7.3.13 An Evaluation of David
7.4 Solomon: Riches, Wisdom, and Foolishness (961-922 B.C.E.)
7.4.1 Getting Rid of Potential Rivals (1 Kings 2:13-46)
7.4.2 Solomon, the Religious Man (1 Kings 3:1-27; 4:29-34)
7.4.3 Solomon, the Organizer (1 Kings 4:1-28)
7.4.4 Solomon, the Builder (1 Kings 5:1-7:51) Preparations for Building the Temple (1 Kings 5:1-18) The Temple Is Built (1 Kings 6:1-38; 7:15-51) The Dedication of the Temple (1 Kings 8:1-66) The Lord appears to Solomon Again (1 Kings 9:1-9) Solomon's Other Building Projects (1 Kings 7:1-12, 9:10-28; 10:14-29)
7.4.5 The Seeds of Destruction (1 Kings 9:15-23; 11:1-43)
7.4.6 The End of Solomon's Reign (1 Kings 11:41-43)
8.0  Israel Becomes Two: The History of the Northern Kingdom Click on icon for access to study topics and questions.
8.1 Introduction
8.1.1 Method of Approach
8.1.2 The Problem of Chronology
8.2 The Division of the Kingdom (922-783 B.C.E.)
8.2.1 Rhoboam's Folly (1 Kings 12:1-19)
8.2.2 Jeroboam (I, 922-901 B.C.E.) Becomes King of Israel (1 Kings 12:20-24)
8.2.3 Jeroboam's Reign (1 Kings 12:25-14:20)
8.2.4 The Parade of Kings in Israel (1 Kings 15:25-16:20)
8.3 The Dynasty of Omri (876-842 B.C.E.)
8.3.1 Israel and Her Neighbors
8.3.2 The Influence of Omri (1 Kings 16:21-28)
8.3.3 The Reign of Ahab (I, 869-850 B.C.E.) (1 Kings 16:29-22:4) The Canaanite Fertility Religion Elijah Among the Prophets Elijah Confonts Ahab (1 Kings 17:1-24) The Contest on Carmel (1 Kings 18:1-46) An Angry Woman and a Scared Prophet (1 Kings 19:1-21) Ahab and Ben-hadad (1 Kings 20:1-43) Ahab, Naboth, and Elijah (1 Kings 21:1-9) Two Kings and a Courageous Prophet (1 Kings 22:1-40) Ahaziah (I, 850-849), Lijah, and Elisha (1 Kings 22:51-2 Kings 2:25) Jehoram (Joram) of Israel (849-842 B.C.E.) (2 Kings 3:1-27)
8.3.4 Stories about Elisha (2 Kings 4:1-9:14)
8.4 Jehu to Jeroboam II (842-746 B.C.E.)
8.4.1 Bloody Jehu (I, 842-815 B.C.E.) (2 Kings 9:1-10:34)
8.4.2 Two Israelite Kings and the Death of Elisha (2 Kings 13:1-25)
8.4.3 Jeroboam II (I, 786--746 B.C.E.) (2 Kings 14:23-29)
8.5 Israel's Eighth-Century Prophets: Amos and Hosea
8.5.0 The Principles of Hebrew Poetry Parallelism Synonymous Parallelism Antithetical Parallelism Formal or Synthetic Parallelism Meter
8.5.1 Amos: The Shepherd from Tekoa The Times The Man The Book The Introduction (Amos 1:1-2) Look at what the neighbors are doing (Amos 1:3-2:5) You are even worse, Israel (Amos 2:6-16) Hear this word (Amos 3:1-5:17) The day of the Lord is upon you (Amos 5:18-27) Woe to the wealthy (Amos 6:1-14) The visions of Amos (7:1-9:4) A better day (Amos 9:10-15) Amos: A Summary
8.5.2 Hosea: The Prophet with the Broken Heart The Rise of Assyria Israel (745-721 B.C.E.) The parade of kings in Israel (2 Kings 15:8-31) Pekah (I), Jotham (J), Ahaz (J), and the Syro-Ephraimitic War (2 Kings 17:27-16:20; see also Isa. 7:1-25) Hosea (I, 732-722/21 B.C.E.) Israel's last king (2 Kings 17:1-41) The Man The Book Marriage and a family (Hos. 1:1-2:1) Unfaithful wife -- unfaithful people (Hos. 2:2-23) The purchase (Hos. 3:1-5) Judgment Must Come, But There Is Hope (Hos. 4:1-14:9) The Lord's lawsuit (Hos. 4:1-3) The guilt of the religious leaders (Hos. 4:4-10) The harlotry of the people (Hos. 4:11-5:2) The result of idolatry (Hos. 5:3-7) War on the horizon (Hos. 5:8-14) False repentance (Hos. 5:15-7:2) Anarchy in the country (Hos. 7:3-7) Ephraim is a half-baked cake (Hos. 7:8-16) False worship and false friends (Hos. 8:1-14) The judgment to come (Hos. 9:1-17) Increased altars -- increased sin (Hos. 10:1-8) Judment must come (Hos. 10:9-15) The Lord still loves Israel (Hos. 11:1-11) Judgment must come (Hos. 12:1-13:16) A plea to return (Hos. 14:1-8) A wisdom saying (Hos. 14:9) Summary on Hosea The Death of the Northern Kingdom
9.0  Judah: Rehoboam to Hezekiah (922-687 B.C.E.) Click on icon for access to study topics and questions.
9.1 Judah after the Breakup
9.1.1 Rehoboam's Reign (1 Kings 14:21-29)
9.1.2 Abijam and Asa of Judah (1 Kings 15:1-24)
9.1.3 Jehoshaphat (J, 873-749 B.C.E.), a Good King (1 Kings 22:41-50)
9.2 Jehu's Purge and Judah (849-783 B.C.E.)
9.2.1 Jehoram (849-842 B.C.E.) and Ahaziah (842 B.C.E.) (2 Kings 9:16-29; 10:1-17)
9.2.2 Athliah (J, 842-837 B.C.E.) (2 Kings 11:1-21)
9.2.3 Joash (J, 837-800 B.C.E.), the Boy King (2 Kings 12:1-21)
9.2.4 Amaziah of Judah (800-783 B.C.E.) (2 Kings 14:1-22)
9.2.5 Uzziah of Judah (783-742 B.C.E.) (2 Kings 15:1-7; 2 Chron. 26:1-23)
9.3 Judah during Israel's Last Days
9.4 The Eighth-Century Prophets from Judah
9.5 Isaiah and the Kings of Judah
9.5.1 Isaiah and Ahaz (Isa. 6:1-8:21) The Call of the Prophet (Isa. 6:1-13) Isaiah and Ahaz: The Syro-Ephraimitic War (734-732 B.C.E.)
9.5.2 Isaiah and Hezekiah (2 Kings 18:1-20:21; Isa. 20:1-6; Isa. 36:1-39:8) Hezekiah's Reform and the Ashdod Rebellion (2 Kings 18:1-12; Isa. 20:1-6) Sennacherib's Invasion (2 Kings 18:13-19:36; 20:12-19)
9.5.3 The Book of Isaiah The Book: Its Background The Book: Its Contents Oracles concerning Judah and the Messiah (Isa. 1:1-5:23; 8:22-12:6) Oracles against foreign nations (Isa. 13:1-23:18) The Isaiah apocalypse (Isa. 24:1-27:13) Oracles from various times (Isa. 28:1-35:10)
9.5.4 Summary on Isaiah The holiness of God A quiet, confident faith A righteous remnant The Messiah
9.6 Micah: The Country Preacher
9.6.1 The Man
9.6.2 The Book Oracles against Jerusalem (Micah 1:1-3:12) A New Day Will Come (Micah 4:1-5:15) Oracles against Israel (Micah 6:1-7:7) Israel's Triumph over her Enemies (Micah 7:8-20)
9.7 Summary on the Eighth-Century Prophets
10.0  Judah: Manasseh to Zedekiah and the Exile Click on icon for access to study topics and questions.
10.1 The International Situation
10.2 The Situation in Judah
10.2.1 Bad Days Under Manasseh (2 Kings 21:1-18; 2 Chron. 33:1-20)
10.2.2 Josiah, the Boy King (2 Kings 22:1-23:30) Josiah's Early Years The Prophet Zephaniah (Zeph. 1:1-3:20) His life The book The Lord's sweeping judgment (Zeph. 1:2-6) The high and mighty of Jerusalem (Zeph. 1:7-13) The great day of the Lord (Zeph. 1:14-18) Hope for the righteous (Zeph. 2:1-3) Devastation on the nations (Zeph. 2:4-15) Woe to Jerusalem (Zeph. 3:1-7) A better day is coming (Zeph. 3:8-13) Jerusalem shall be restored (Zeph. 3:14-20) Changes under Josiah (2 Kings 22:3-23:27) Finding the scroll (2 Kings 22:3-20) Covenant renewal and religious reform (2 Kings 23:1-27) Meanwhile, in the Rest of the World The Death of Josiah (2 Kings 23:28-30; 2 Chron. 35:2-27)
10.3 Two Prophets and King Jehoiakim
10.3.1 Nahum: Prophet of the Lord's Vengeance on Nineveh The Lord is a Jealous God (Nah. 1:1-11) You are Doomed, Nineveh (Nah. 1:12-3:19)
10.3.2 The Reigns of Jehoiakim and Jehoiachin (2 Kings 23:31-24:17)
10.3.3 Habakkuk: The Philosopher Prophet The Man The Book Habakkuk's questions (Hab. 1:1-2:5) "Woe to him" (Hab. 2:6-20) Habakkuk's prayer (Hab. 3:1-19)
10.4 Jeremiah, Zedikiah, and the Last Days of Judah
10.4.1 Jeremiah's Early Life and Call (Jer. 1:1-19) The Call (Jer. 1:1-19) His Early Ministry The Book
10.4.2 Jeremiah and Jehoiakim The Temple Sermon (Jer. 7:1-15; 26:1-24) Jeremiah's Conflict with Jehoiakim
10.4.3 Jeremiah and Jehoiachin
10.4.4 Jeremiah and Zedekiah The Vision of the Figs (597) (Jer. 24:1-10) True and False Prophets: The Sign of the Yoke (Jer. 27:1-28:17) The Letter to the Exiles (Jer. 29:1-32) The Babylonian Invasion (Jer. 34:1-7) False Dealings with the Slaves (Jer. 34:8-22) Jeremiah in Prison (Jer. 37:6-21) Purchasing the Field at Anathoth (Jer. 32:1-44) Zedekiah's Last Warning (Jer. 38:1-28) An Then There Were None: Jerusalem Falls (Jer. 39:1-10; 52:1-34; 2 Kings 25:1-21) The Fate of Jeremiah (Jer. 39:11-40:6) After the Fall (Jer. 40:7--44:30)
10.4.5 The Oracles of Jeremiah Early and Mixed Oracles Early oracles (Jer. 2:1-6:30) Mixed oracles (Jer. 8:4-10:25) Common Themes Israel, the unfaithful wife The worship of idols The foe from the north The Confessions and Other Oracles (Jer. 11:-1-20:18) The prophet's frustrations: The denial of family life The prophet's frustrations: The confessions The first confession: Save me from those who would kill me, O Lord! (Jer. 11:18-12:6) The second confession: Why do you treat me this way, Lord? (Jer. 15:10-21) The third confession: Heal me, O Lord (Jer. 17:14-18) The fourth confession: Let them have it, Lord! (Jer. 18:18-23) The fifth confession: You have made a fool of me, Lord (Jer. 20:1-13) The sixth confession: Why was I ever born, Lord? (Jer. 20:14-18) The significance of the confessions The prophet as optimist: The parable of the potter (Jer. 18:1-17) The prophet as optimist: The oracles of consolation (Jer. 30:1-32:40) Oracles against Foreign Nations (Jer. 46:1-51:64) Against Egypt (Jer. 46:2-28) Against Philistia (Jer. 47:1-7) Against Moab (Jer. 48:1-47) Agains Babylon (Jer. 50:1-52:64)
10.4.6 The Importance of Jeremiah 52
10.4.7 Evaluation of Jeremiah
11.0  The Exile: Judah's Dark Night of the Soul Click on icon for access to study topics and questions.
11.1 After the Fall
11.1.1 Lamentations: Funeral songs for a Dead City Characteristics of the Book Contents of the Book Jerusalem, the abandoned widow (Lam. 1:1-22) The punishment of Jerusalem (Lam. 2:1-22) The destruction of the land (Lam. 2:1-9) The effect on the people (Lam. 2:10-12) O Jeruslaem, how can I comfort you? (Lam. 2:13-19) Lord, look what you are doing (Lam. 2:20-22) A personal lament, advice about God's righteousness and mercy, and a prayer for help against the enemy (Lam. 3:1-66) A lament about life (Lam. 3:1-24) The importance of trusting God (Lam. 3:25-51) Rescued from my enemies (Lam. 3:52-66) Conditions during the siege of Jerusalem (Lam. 4:1-22) Restore us, O Lord (Lam. 5:1-22)
11.1.2 The Fate of the Survivors
11.2 With the Exiles in Babylon
11.2.1 There Were Some Changes Made A New Name A New Way of Life A New Language A New Way of Woship A New Emphasis on the Traditions of Israel A New Emphasis in Theology
11.2.2 The Prophet of the Transition: Ezekiel Ezekiel, the Man The Book of Ezekiel Oracles agains Jerusalem (Ezek. 1-240 The call of Ezekiel (Ezek. 1:1-3:27) The prophet called (Ezek. 1:1-28 The prophet commissioned (Ezek. 2:1-3:27) As a prophet to a rebellious people (Ezek. 2:1-3:3) As a prophet to a stubborn people (Ezek. 3:4-9) As a prophet to the exiles (Ezek. 3:10-15) As a watchman for the house of Israel (Ezek. 3:16-21) As a portrayer of the Lord's judgment (Ezek. 3:22-27) The prophet in action (Ezek. 4:1-5:17) Let's play war (Ezek. 4:1-3) The long rest (Ezek. 4:4-8) Food is scarce! (Ezek. 4:9-17) The prophet's haircut (Ezek. 5:1-17) The prophet preaching (Ezek. 6:1-7:27) Heresy in the Temple (Ezek. 8:1-11:25) Those abominable idols (Ezek. 8:1-11:25) Marked for destruction (Ezek. 9:1-11) No more glory in the Temple (Ezek. 10:1-22; 11:22-25) In action again (Ezek. 12:1-20) Hard words for false prophets and unfaithful people (Ezek. 12:21-14:23) The fate of the prophets (Ezek. 13:1-16) The fate of fickle women (Ezek. 13:17-23) The fate of idol worshipers (Ezek. 14:1-23) The prophet and his allegories (Ezek. 15:1-17:24) Jerusalem: The faithless wife (Ezek. 16:1-63) The great eagles (Ezek. 17:1-24) The soul that sins shall die (Ezek. 18:1-32) Two poetic allegories (Ezek. 19:1-14) Three sermons (Ezek. 20:1-22:31) The will of God (Ezek. 20:1-49) The sword of the Lord (Ezek. 21:1-32) The sins of Jerusalem (Ezek. 22:1-3) Those wild, wild sisters (Ezek. 23:1-49) The rusty pot (Ezek. 24:1-14) The prophet's wife dies (Ezek. 24:15-27; 33:21-22) Oracles against Foreign Nations (Ezek 25:1-32:32) Many words against Tyre and the Phoenicians (Ezek. 26:1-28:19) The fall of Egypt (Ezek. 29:1-32:32) That Egyptian crocodile (Ezek. 29:1-16) Egypt is given to Nebuchadnezzar (Ezek. 29:17-21) Egypt is doomed (Ezek. 30:1-19) Oracles agains the pharaoh (Ezek. 30:20-32:32) Hope for a Better Day (Ezek. 33:1-48:35) Oracles of Restoration (Ezek. 33:1-39:29) The watchman's responsibility (Ezek. 33:1-20) Oracles against the inhabitants of the land (Ezek. 33:23-29) They don't believe you, Ezekiel (Ezek. 33:30-33) The responsibility of shepherds (Ezek. 34:1-31) You are going to get it, Edom (Ezek. 35:1-15) Blessings on you, Israel (Ezek. 36:1-38) O dry bones, hear the word of the Lord (Ezek. 37:1-14) The two shall be one (Ezek. 37:15-28) The Lord and God of Magod (Ezek. 37:15-28) The Restoration of the Temple (Ezek. 40:1-48:35) Ezekiel: A Summary
11.3 The End Has Come for Babylon
11.3.1 The Decline of Babylon
11.3.2 Cyrus the Persian
11.4 The Exile's Great Unkown Prophet
11.4.1 The Man
11.4.2 The Book Comfort to Israel (Isa. 40-55) The prophet's call (Isa. 40:1-11) The praise of the Lord, the Creator (Isa. 40:12-32) The nations on trial (Isa. 41:1-29) The First Servant Song (Isa. 42:1-4) The Servant Songs The Servant's mission (Isa. 42:1-4) I am the Lord you God (Isa. 42:5-46:13) Sing a sad song for Babylon (Isa. 47:1-15) You have heard, now see all this (Isa. 48:1-22) The Second Servant Song: The Servant's Responsibility (Isa. 49:1-6) The return of the people (Isa. 49:7-13) Zion shall be comforted (Isa. 49:14-50:3) The Third Servant Song: The Servant's Submission (Isa. 50:4-11) Joy for Jerusalem and beyond (Isa. 51:1-52:12) The Fourth Servant Song: The Servant's Trial and Death (Isa. 52:13-53:12) The appearance of the Servant (Isa. 52:13-15) The rejection of the Servant (Isa. 53:1-3) The Servant suffering for others (Isa. 53:4-6) The death and burial of the Servant (Isa. 53:7-9) The vindication of the Servant (Isa. 53:10-12) Who was the Servant? Israel is assured (Isa. 54:1-17) Oracles to a Restored People (Isa. 56:1-66:24) The Lord's salvaltion is for all (Isa. 56:1-8) Holy day religion (Isa. 58:1-14) Call for repentance (Isa. 59:1-21) Poems about Zion (Isa. 60:1-62:12) Jerusalem's glorious future (Isa. 60:1-22) Good tidings to the lowly of Zion (Isa. 61:1-11) New days and new names for Jerusalem (Isa. 62:1-12) A prayer and its answer (Isa. 63:7-65:25) The final words (Isa. 66:1-24)
11.4.3 Summary of Second Isaiah
11.5 Summary: Prophets of the Exile
12.0  The Postexilic Period: Judah Revived Click on icon for access to study topics and questions.
12.1 The International Situation (538-522 B.C.E.)
12.1.1 Cyrus the Great
12.1.2 The Reign of Cambyses (530-522 B.C.E.)
12.1.3 Darius I (522-486 B.C.E.)
12.2 The Restored Community
12.2.1 Cyrus's Decree (Ezra 1:1-4)
12.2.2 The Returners (Ezra 1:5-2:70) Haggai: Promoter of Temple-Building (Hag. 1:1-2:23) If you expect the Lord's blessings, then do his will (Hag. 1:1-15) If the Temple is built, you will prosper (Hag. 2:10-19) Zerubbabel, you are the chosen one (Hag. 2:20-23) Zechariah: Man of Visions Return from your evil ways (Zech. 1:1-6) The first vision: The four horsemen (Zech. 1:7-17) The second vision: The four horns and four smiths (Zech. 1:18-21) The third vision: The man with the measuring line (Zech. 2:1-5) A call to flee from Babylon (Zech. 2:6-13) The fourth vision: Satan and Joshua (Zech. 3:1-10) The fifth vision: The golden lampstand and the two olive trees (Zech. 4:1-14) The sixth vision: The flying scroll (Zech. 5:1-4) The seventh vision: The woman in a ephah (Zech. 5:5-11) The eighth vision: The four chariots (Zech. 6:1-8) Concluding oracles (Zech. 7:1-8:23) The Effect of Haggai and Zechariah's Work (Ezra 5:1-6:22)
12.3 The Time of Silence
12.4 Ezra and Nehemiah
12.4.1 Ezra the Priest the Date of Ezra The Work of Ezra (Ezra 7:1-10:44; Neh. 8:1-9:37) Ezra's reforms (Ezra 9:1-10:44; Neh. 8:1-9:37) The problem of foreign wives (Ezra 9:1-10:44) The renewing of the covenant (Ezra 8:1-9:38)
12.4.2 Nehemiah the Builder (Neh. 1:1-7:73; 13:1-31) Event Leading to Nehemiah's Return (Neh. 1:1-2:8) The Rebuilding of the Walls (Neh. 2:9-7:73; 12:44-47) Nehemiah's Second Term as Govenor (Neh. 13:1-31)
13.0  A Legacy of Israel: Wise Men and Psalm Singers Click on icon for access to study topics and questions.
13.1 Wise Men and Wisdom Literature
13.1.1 Wise Men and Their Work Wisdom in the Ancient Near East Wisdom in Israel
13.1.2 Wisdom Books Proverbs The wise man's purpose (Prov. 1:1-7) The way to the good life (Prov. 1:8-9:18) Son, listen to your elders (Prov. 1:8-19) Wisdom's sermon to the simple (Prov. 1:20-33) Son, listen to wisdom (Prov. 2:1-22) Son, let the Lord lead you (Prov. 3:1-35) Son, get wisdom and insight (Prov. 4:1-27) Son, beware of that wild woman (Prov. 5:1-22) Son, remember four important things (Prov. 6:1-19) Son, wisdom will keep you safe from wicked women (Prov. 6:20-35) Son, let's talk some more about wicked women (Prov. 7:1-27) Wisdom's sermon to humanity (Prov. 8:1-36) The two ways: The wise and the foolish (Prov. 9:1-18) The "Proverbs of Solomon" (Prov. 10:1-22:16) The Book of thirty Sayings (Prov. 22:17-24:22) More "Proverbs of Solomon" (Prov. 25:1-29:27) The words of Agur (Prov. 30:1-33) The words of Lemuel (Prov. 31:1-31) Job: When Orthodoxy Fails The structure of the book Who wrote Job, and when was it written? Some things one needs to know to help in understanding Job The Book Job, the righteous man: the prose story (Job 1:1-2:13) Job, the frustrated sufferer: The poetic discourse (Job 3:1-42:6) Job's complaint (Job 3:1-26) The debate: Round one (Job 4:1-14:22) Eliphaz, the man who has visions (Job 4:1-5:27) Job to Eliphaz: Round one (Job 6:1-7:21) Bildad, the traditionalist (Job 8:1-22) Job to Bildad: Round one (Job 9:1-10:22) Zophar, God's right-hand man (Job 11:1-20) Job to Zophar: Round one (Job 12:1-14:22) The debate: Round two (Job 15:1-21:34) Eliphaz speaks again (Job 15:1-35) Job lambasts his friends and questions God (Job 16:1-17:16) Bildad plays the same record (Job 18:1-21) Job reaches the bottom (Job 19:1-29) Zophar knows the answer (Job 20:1-29) Job replies to Zophar: Round two (Job 21:1-34) The debate: Round three (Job 22:1-27:23) Eliphaz gets nasty (Job 22:1-30) Job searches for God (Job 23:1-24:25) Bildad contrasts God and man (Job 25:1-6) Job replies to Bildad (Job 26:1-4) The continuation of Bildad's speech on God and man (Job 26:5-14) Job ends his part of the debate (Job 27:1-12) Zophar again? (Job 27:13-23) The wisdom poem (Job 28:1-28) Job presents his case (Job 29:1-31:40) The Elihu speeches (Job 32:1-37:24) The divine speeches (Job 38:1-41:34) Job's submission (Job 42:1-6) The traditional ending of the story (Job 42:7-17) Job: A summary Ecclesiastes: Skeptical Wisdom Vanity of vanities (Eccl. 1:1-2:26) "For everything there is a season" (Eccl. 3:1-15) The question of justice (Eccl. 3:16-4:4) The futility of working alone (Eccl. 4:5-16) Do not fool around with God (Eccl. 5:1-7) Life has problems (Eccl. 5:8-6:12) Thinking about life (Eccl. 7:1-8:1) Watch out for the ruler (Eccl. 8:2-9) There is no justice in life (Eccl. 8:10-9:12) Wisdom and foolishness (Eccl. 9:13-10:20) The actions of the wise (Eccl. 11:1-6) Advice to the young (Eccl. 11:7-12:8) The end of it all (Eccl. 12:9-14)
13.2 The Sweet Singers of Israel
13.2.1 The Song of Songs The Nature of the Book Interpretations of the Book A Look in the Book The bride is prepared for her lover (Song 1:1-6) The bride and the groom together (Song 1:7-2:5) The bride's memories of love (Song 2:6-17) The bride has a bad dream (Song 3:1-5) The king's wedding procession (Song 4:1-5:1) The bride has another dream (Song 5:2-6:3) The groom describes the bride (Song 6:4-10) An invitation to dance (Song 6:11-7:9) The bride invites the groom to a garden tryst (Song 7:10-13) A poem in anticipation of the wedding (Song 8:1-4) Please be faithful (Song 8:5-12) A final call (Song 8:13-14
13.2.2 The Book of Psalms Who Wrote the Psalms, and When Were They Written? The Study of the Psalms Hymns Communal laments Individual laments Individual songs of thanksgiving The royal psalms The other psalms A Look at Selected Psalms Psalm 1 (a wisdom psalm) Psalm 8 (a hymn on the glory of the Lord and the dignity of humanity) Psalm 117 (a short hymn) Psalm 74 (a communal lament) Psalm 22 (an individual lament) Psalm 23 (a psalm of confidence) Psalm 51 (an individual lament) Psalm 32 (an individual song of thanksgiving) Psalm 116 (an individual song of thanksgiving) Psalm 45 (a royal psalm) Psalm 139 (a lament of the individual) Special groups of psalms The vengeance psalms Summary on the Psalms
14.0  The Time of Silence: Judah in Eclipse Click on icon for access to study topics and questions.
14.1 The Historical Situation (400-150 B.C.E.)
14.1.1 Persia's Last Days
14.1.2 The Campaigns of Alexander the Great
14.1.3 Ptolemies and Seleucids in Palestine
14.2 The Maccabean Revolt
14.3 The Word of the Lord in Difficult Times
14.3.1 The Last of the Prophets Obdiah: A Hymn of Hate Against Edom (Obad. 1:1-21) Malachi: The Lord Questions the Community Joel: Prophecy and Apocalyptic The locusts are coming! (Joel 1:1-2:27) The great day of the Lord (Joel 2:28-3:21)
14.3.2 The Apocalyptic Writers Zechariah 9-14 The day of the Lord means new life for Israel (Zech. 9:1-11:17) The day of the Lord and the triumph of Jerusalem (Zech. 12:1-14:21) Daniel: An Encourage Word for a Dark Time The book: Its form The book: Its contents Stories about Daniel (Dan. 1:1-6:28) Daniel's visions (Dan. 7:1-12:13) The four beasts from the sea (Dan. 7:1-28) The ram and the he-goat (Dan. 8:1-28) The seventy weeks (Dan. 9:1-27) The last days (Dan. 10:1-12:13)
14.3.3 The Great Debate: How to Deal with the World Esther: Jews Should Look after Themselves Ruth and Jonah: The Jews Have an Obligation to Others The Book of Ruth (Ruth 1:1-4:18) The Book of Jonah (Jonah 1:1-4:11) Jonah, the stubborn prophet (Jonah 1:1-17) Jonah, the prophet in the depths (Jonah 2:1-10) Jonah, the reluctant prophet (Jonah 3:1-10) Jonah, the angry prophet (Jonah 4:1-11)
15.0  Epilogue: The Coninuing Story Click on icon for access to study topics and questions.
15.1 Life in the Jewish Community
15.2 The Rise of Parties and Sects
15.3 Literary Activity
15.3.1 The Apocrypha
15.3.2 The Pseudepigrapha
15.3.3 The Dead Sea Scrolls
15.4 Judaism's Oral Tradition
15.5 The End of the Matter

1The topic listings are based on John H. Tullock, The Old Testament Story, 4th ed. (Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1997).

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